The Secondary Cities’ partners use an array of appropriate open source and proprietary mapping tools. Although this table is not an exhaustive list of the existing mapping tools, the table provides a number of available tools and enables a comparison of the functionalities and capabilities. Click on the categories below to toggle columns on and off:

The Secondary Cities team manages their bibliography using the open source Zotero platfrom. The blocking of 3rd-party cookies may prevent viewing this page correctly, however, you can visit the Secondary Cities Zotero page directly.

The Secondary City (2C) initiative recognizes the need to integrate the Geographic Information System (GIS) Code of Ethics in our participatory mapping activities. Dr. Melinda Laituri, the 2C Principal Investigator, has created the following presentation to provide an introduction to ethics for participatory mapping in secondary cities.

Ethics Guidelines for Secondary Cities Initiative

The 2C Ethics presentation introduces the following topics:

As GIS professionals, the Secondary Cities team and partners support and strictly adhere to the GIS code of ethics from the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA). This Code of Ethics is intended to provide guidelines for GIS (geographic information system) professionals. It should help professionals make appropriate and ethical choices. It should provide a basis for evaluating their work from an ethical point of view. By heeding this code, GIS professionals will help to preserve and enhance public trust in the discipline.

URISA Ethics Document

A discussion of the practical application of GIS ethics for participatory mapping can be found at:

Practical ethics for PGIS practitioners, facilitators, technology intermediaries, and researchers” (Participatory Learning and Action, April 2006)